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Basic Turbine and Turbine types

TURBINE


A turbine is a machine or engine which used a Stream of air, gas, water, or steams to turn a wheel and produce power.  These devices are generally used in electrical generation, engines, and propulsion systems and are classified as a type of engine.

WORKING PRINCIPLES OF TURBINE. 

  • When the fluid strikes the blades of the turbine, the blades are displaced, which produces rotational energy.
  • When the turbine shaft is directly coupled to an electric generator mechanical energy is converted into electrical energy.
  • This electrical power is known as hydroelectric power.
             A working fluid contains potential energy (pressure head) and kinetic energy (velocity head). The fluid may be compressible or incompressible. Several physical principles are employed by turbines to collect this energy.


IMPULSE TURBINE.

  • In an impulse turbine, fast moving fluid is through a narrow nozzle at the turbine blades to make them spin around.
  • The blades of an  impulse turbine are usually bucket-shaped so they catch the fluid and direct it off at an angle.
  • In an impulse turbine, the fluid is forced to hit the turbine at high speed.

TYPES OF IMPULSE TURBINE.

  1. Pelton Turbine.
  2. Cross- flow Turbine.

PELTON WHEEL TURBINE.


  • These are usually used for high head, low flow power plants.
  • It was invented by Lester ella pelton in the 1870s.
  • Nozzles are direct forceful, high speed streams of water against a rotary series of spoon-shaped buckets, also known as impulse blades, which are mounted around the circumferential rim of a drive wheel also called a runner.
  • As the water jet hit the bucket- blades, the direction of water velocity is changed to follow the contours of the bucket.
  • Water impulse energy exerts torque on the bucket and wheel system, spinning the wheel; the water stream itself does a “u-turn” and exits at the outer sides of the bucket.
  • Pelton wheel operate best with drop height: (50-2000m) and flow rate is (4-15m3/s).

CROSS- FLOW TURBINE


  • It is developed by Anthony Michel, in 1903 and is used for low heads. (10-70 meters).
  • As with a water wheel, the water is admitted at the turbine’s edge. After passing the runner, it leaves on the opposite side.
  • Going through the runner twice provides additional efficiency.
  • The cross-flow turbine is a low speed machine that is well suited for locations with a low head but high flow.
  • The peak efficiency of a cross flow turbine is somewhat less than a kaplon, Francis or pelton turbine.
  • It has a low price, and good regulation.
  • As water going through the runner twice, provides additional efficiency.
  • Cross-flow turbines are mostly used in mini and micro hydropower units.
  • Its good point as when the water leaves the runner, it also helps clean the runner of small debris and pollution.
REACTION TURBINE 

                                In a reaction turbine, forces driving the rotor are achieved by the reaction of an accelerating water flow in the runner while the pressure drops. The reaction principle can be observed in a rotary lawn sprinkler where the emerging jet drives the rotor in the opposite direction.

                                  In reaction turbine torque developed by reacting to the fluid’s pressure. The pressure of the fluid changes as it passes through the turbine rotor blades.

TYPES OF REACTION TURBINE 


  1. Kaplan turbine.
  2. Francis turbine.
  3. Kinetic turbine.



BASIC TYPE OF TURBINES

  1. Water Turbine.
  2. Steam turbine.
  3. Gas Turbine.
  4. Wind Turbine.
Although the Same principles apply to all turbines, their specific designs differ sufficiently to merit separate descriptions.


WATER TURBINE. 

                       The Water Turbine, also known as a Hydro Turbine, is a fairly simple machine that produces a rotary turning action at a medium to high rotational speed. Also, water turbines can be used as part of a home hydro electricity system by installing an electrical generator. Unlike a water pump which is mechanically driven by an electric motor or wind turbine and uses suction to pump the water through it, a typical water turbine design uses nozzles and differential water pressure to produce a mechanical rotation and output.
                                 In other words, a water turbine converts water pressure energy into mechanical energy. It is important at this point to understand the difference between a Water Turbine Design and a Waterwheel Design.



STEAM TURBINE.

  • A  steam turbine is a device that extracts thermal energy from pressurized steam and uses it to do mechanical work on a rotating output shaft.
  • This turbine was invented by sir Charles Parson in 1884.
  • Steam turbine are used for the generation of electricity in thermal power plants, such as plants using coal fuel oil or nuclear fuel.
  • Steam turbines are made in a variety of sizes ranging from small to large. Used as mechanical drives for pumps, compressors and other shaft driven equipment used to generate electricity (upto 1.5 GW).



APPLICATIONS OF STEAM TURBINE.

  • Fuel used are biomasses, coal etc.
  • Modern steam turbine has automatic control system.
  • Steam heated processes in plants and factories.
  • Steam driven turbines in electric power plants.
  • Because the turbine generates rotary motion, it is particularly suited to be used to drive an electrical generator about 90% of all electricity generation in the united states (1996).

GAS TURBINE.

  • A gas turbine, also called a combustion turbin e, is a type of internal combustion engine.
  • Fresh atmospheric air flows through a compressor that brings. It to highr pressure.
  • Energy is then added by spraying fuel into the air and ingiting it so the combustion generates a high temperature flow.
  • Gas turbines are used to power aircraft, trains, ships, electrical generator sor event tanks.


WIND TURBINE.


                                    A  wind turbine is a device that converts kinetic energy form the wind tin to electrical power.

  • Convention horizontal axis turbines can be divided into three components.
  • The rotor component, includes the blades for converting wind energy to low speed rotational energy.
  • The generator component, includes the electrical generator the control electronics, and most likely a gearbox.
  • The structural support component, includes the tower etc.
  • Wind turbine used tor charging batteries may be referred as a wing charger.


TYPES OF WIND TURBINES.

1.     Horizontal- axis wind turbines.
                                                   Horizontal- axis wind turbines are being parallel to the ground, the axis of blade rotation is parallel to the wind flow.

2.     Vertical- axis wind turbines
                                                  Vertical- axis wind turbines has its blades rotating on an axis perpendicular to the ground.


APPLICATION OF WIND TURBINE. 

  • Our small wind turbines are used in a variety of industries and application, including marine application off-grid systems.
  • Industrial applications including road signage, remote telemetry, mobile base station and for house, schools and farms.  


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Basic Turbine and Turbine types Basic Turbine and Turbine types Reviewed by Thermal Power Tech on September 06, 2019 Rating: 5

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