Steam Turbine Condenser.


                           Condenser refers here to the shell and tube heat exchanger installed at the outlet of every steam turbine in Thermal power plant of utility companies generally. These condensers are heat exchangers which convert steam from it is gaseous to its liquid state, also know as phase transition.

                              Steam Condenser is a device in which the exhaust steam from steam turbine is condensed by means of cooling water. the main purpose of a steam condenser in turbine is maintain a low back pressure on the exaust side of the steam turbine. After releasing from nozzles, the steam has to expand to a great extent for converting available energy into it to usable mechanical work. So, if the steam after doing its, work does not get condensed it will not give required space to other steam behind it to expand to its required volume.

Why Is It Required? 

                         The steam turbine itself is a devise to convert the heat in steam to mechanical power. The difference between the heat of steam per unit weight at the inlet to turbine and the heat of steam per unit weight at the outlet to turbine represents the heat given out (or heat drop) in the steam turbine which is converted to mechanical power. The heat drop per unit weight of steam is also measured by the word enthalpy drop. Therefore the more the conversion of heat per pound (or Kg) of steam to mechanical power in the turbine, the better is its performance or otherwise known as efficiency. By condensing the exhaust steam of turbine, the exhaust pressure is brought down below atmospheric pressure from above atmospheric pressure, increasing the steam pressure drop between inlet and exhaust of steam turbine. This further reduction in exhaust pressure gives out more heat per unit weight of steam input to the steam turbine, for conversion to mechanical power. Most of the heat liberated due to condensing, i.e., latent heat of steam, is carried away by circulating water inside the tubes.

Types Of steam Condenser 
                    In a steam condenser, steam is always condensed with help of cooling water, but the techniques are different for different condensers. Depending upon condensation techniques, there are mainly two types of steam condensers. They are mainly
  1. Jet Steam Condenser.
  2. Surface Steam Condenser.

Jet Steam Condenser

                              Here cooling water is sprayed on the exhaust steam. This is very fast process of condensing steam. But here cooling water and condensed steam are mixed up which can not be separated.

Surface Steam Condenser
Here, cooling water and exhaust steam are separated by a barrier and condensation is done by heat exchanging through this barrier wall. Cooling water is passed through numbers of water tubes and exhaust steam passes over the outer surface of the tube. The heat of steam is absorbed by the water inside the tube through the wall of the tube.
Again in some cases, steam is passed through an array of steam tubes, cooling water is sprayed over the steam tube and condensed steam comes out from the outlet of the tubes.
Surface steam condensing is slower process than Jet Steam condensing, but the main advantage of surface steam condensing is that, the condensed steam is not thrown to waste but is returned to steam boiler through feed water system.

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Steam Turbine Condenser. Steam Turbine Condenser. Reviewed by Thermal Power Tech on September 28, 2019 Rating: 5

1 comment:

  1. Wow, this is a very informative article on Steam Turbine Condenser. I'm actually looking to pay someone to write a research paper right now. Reading blogs is something I enjoy doing. The shell and tube heat exchanger installed at the outlet of every steam turbine in utility companies' thermal power plants is referred to as a condenser.



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